UC Freshman Admission – Choosing a Major


Since the UCs stopped looking at standardized test scores, I noticed a much stronger preference for students who can clearly articulate demonstrated interest toward their chosen major (not just doing things, like taking classes or participating in activities, that imply demonstrated interest, BUT clearly articulating that interest using words in the Personal Insight Questions). In the past, UCs had expected certain types of applicants to clearly articulate demonstrated interest toward their chosen major, such as engineering, nursing, business administration, and some art programs that require auditions or submission of portfolios. Now, that expectation appears to have extended to all applicants.

Choice of major is more than a freestanding option on the UC Application. It is (or should be) an integral part of how you package yourself in the UC Application. I will illustrate this by going through a few fictional case studies. For each case study, I will provide an analysis and some recommendations to exemplify the role major will potentially play in your UC Application and how you should answer the Personal Insight Questions.

If you need more detailed information on how major choice may affect your chance of admission, purchase a back issue of my July 2022 newsletter for a complete, campus-by-campus explanation ($25; on the PayPal payment confirmation page, scroll down and click “Return to Merchant” button to access download – please note, purchase of a digital product is NONREFUNDABLE).

Case A

Andy wants to major in Biology and he is interested in becoming a doctor. Andy is in a humanities magnet program and is an active member in several clubs: Dead Poet Society – 2 years; Freedom of Expression Through Dance – 3 years; Creative Collages – 4 years. He was also on the school soccer team for 1 year and taught himself how to play the guitar 2 years ago. Andy will have completed APUSH, AP World History, AP English Lit, AP Studio Art, AP Music Theory, and Honors Pre-Calc by the time he graduated high school.


Andy’s coursework and activities do not support his interest in becoming a doctor. There is literally NOTHING in his life (that he disclosed) that would remotely hint an interest in medicine. So that begs the question of whether Andy is really committed to becoming a doctor or if he will succeed in a biological science major (he has not completed any AP science courses and whether he can succeed in college-level science courses is difficult to gauge).


If I am working with Andy, I would encourage him to select majors more closely aligned with his interests or choose undeclared in the College of Letters & Science, and have him focus on his arts and humanities achievements in his Personal Insight Questions, bypassing his interest in medicine altogether.


For UCs that have biological sciences majors in the College of Letters & Science, Andy will have the option to change his major later even if he started out as undeclared (most students would have to declare a major as a junior, so Andy is not disadvantaged in any way). For UCs that have biological sciences majors in a separate college (such as Davis or Irvine), Andy needs to weigh his interest in the campus against his interest in declaring biological sciences; switching is possible after admission but it is not guaranteed.

Case B

Bethany is not sure what she wants to major in college and she has a hodgepodge of extracurricular activities:

  • She will have served in the student government for three years by the time she graduated high school, having served as treasurer in junior year and peer advisor in senior year.
  • Bethany tried cheerleading in freshman year and dance squad sophomore year, and did the tryout for track and field her junior year but didn’t make the team.
  • She applied for six different internships during the summer after her junior year, landing one with the city councilmember where she spearheaded a literacy project through the city library.
  • Bethany founded Environmental Club at her high school her freshman year … it failed miserably (who cares about the environment, right?) but she has since organized a school-wide recycling program through student government.
  • She volunteers at the animal shelter regularly since her sophomore year, spending extra time during the summer shadowing the veterinarian and assisting in surgeries.

Bethany will have completed AP English Lit, AP Gov, Honors Pre-Calc, AP Calc AB, Honors Chemistry, AP Biology, AP Psychology, and AP Art History by the time she graduated high school. She also took two semesters of French and an introductory sociology course at her local community college.


Bethany may not have made up her mind about her future career, but she has explored and taken advantage of numerous opportunities. I applaud her enthusiasm and commitment to try different things.


If I am working with Bethany, I would suggest that she talks about how she spent her high school years exploring different opportunities available to her and to highlight all of her achievements. Not having a clear goal has not deterred her from being a star in multiple subjects/fields/areas and that is something she should emphasize in her Personal Insight Questions.


Apply undeclared in the College of Letters & Science.

Case C

Charlene wants to major in biochemistry and eventually become a pharmacist. She got a job at a neighborhood pharmacy around the corner from her house the moment her work permit came through (middle of sophomore year) and has worked there ever since. In junior year she applied to a summer research internships with a chemistry professor at a 4-year college in her town and she spent twelve weeks modeling changes in the molecular structure of a new chemical compound. She is a peer-tutor at her high school for AP Biology and AP Chemistry. She co-founded the Science Club in her junior year and is serving as president in her senior year. Charlene will have completed Honors Pre-Calc, AP Calc AB, AP Calc BC, AP Biology, and AP Physics C by the time she graduated high school. She also took the one-year science-track chemistry course sequence at the 4-year college in her town.


Charlene is my favorite kind of overachiever: motivated, driven, and with laser-sharp focus. She knows what she wants and she’s fully committed to get there.


If I am working with Charlene, I would suggest that she emphasizes her goal of becoming a pharmacist and everything that she has done to get there (job at the pharmacy, research internship, college-level chemistry courses), as well as her broader interest in science (Science Club and peer-tutoring), in her Personal Insight Questions.


Apply to Biochemistry, usually in the College of Letters & Science; I will also discuss with Charlene some specialized pre-pharmacy majors each UC offers.

Case D

Daniel thinks engineering sounds pretty cool and wants to major in mechanical engineering. He was the football captain of his high school team in sophomore and junior year and brought his team to the state championship both years (but he is not interested in playing in college, besides, the coach doesn’t think he plays well enough to be recruited). He also plays lacrosse and baseball, but not at the varsity level. Sports take up all of his time so he hasn’t participated in many other extracurricular activities. But Daniel remembers going with his teammates to beach clean-ups a few times in the summer, in between long, grueling pre-season football practice sessions. By the time Daniel graduated high school, he would have completed AP Gov, Honors Math Analysis (highest level math course he completes), Honors Physics, AP Human Geography, and Honors Spanish 4.


UC engineering admission evaluation emphasizes math and science preparation, favoring students who have completed advanced (AP, IB, or college-level) coursework in physics, calculus or above, and other relevant sciences (related to the engineering major). Since Daniel’s coursework has not adequately prepared him for the rigor of the UC engineering programs, applying to engineering will unnecessarily put him at a significant disadvantage when he may be competitive for admission to other majors.


If I am working with Daniel, I would suggest that he considers applying to another major or select undeclared in the College of Letters & Science. My guess is that Daniel probably doesn’t know much about engineering and is not actually all that incredibly interested (especially given the fact that he is not adequately prepared for it). Given his football record, I would also ask him to reconsider athletic recruitment as an option. For his Personal Insight Questions, his athletic achievements would be front and center.


NOT engineering! Pick something else where an expressed interest exists or choose undeclared in the College of Letters & Science.

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Join the discussion and tell us your opinion.

Linda Tullreply
August 25, 2022 at 4:14 pm

Great details and information thank you Miss Sun!

Ms. Sunreply
August 26, 2022 at 11:28 am
– In reply to: Linda Tull

Glad I could help 🙂

August 25, 2022 at 5:26 pm

Awesome post on today’s topic “ UC Freshman Admission – Choosing a Major”

Ms. Sunreply
August 26, 2022 at 11:28 am
– In reply to: Sonal

Thanks 🙂

Ms. Foxreply
September 23, 2022 at 1:57 pm

What would you recommend for a student who has several AP courses and founded a club relative to a major in which they are interested but not convinced they want to select? Is it better to apply to that major or to apply undeclared? Thank you!

Ms. Sunreply
September 24, 2022 at 10:41 am
– In reply to: Ms. Fox

That depends on which argument the student can make more persuasively. When students have a very targeted area of interest, applying undeclared or another major can sometimes look like the student is trying to game the system (I’ve seen this type of backfiring from a few students who came to me to do appeals and, I have to say, they were rather spectacular failings – not always the students’ fault, sometimes they get bad advice from teachers, counselors, or consultants). If the student can effectively address the uncertainty head on (for example, discussing the interest and what doubts the student still has and point to other interests the student has cultivated), then that may work. Otherwise it’s probably better to argue the case for which the evidence is already abundant, rather than choosing to fight an uphill battle (again, this depends on the student; some students prefer a challenge and are willing to stake everything they have even if the odds are not in their favor – this is a personal choice and the student just needs to understand the ramification of that choice).

Ms. Foxreply
September 24, 2022 at 12:47 pm

Thank you for taking the time to respond!

Ms. Sunreply
September 24, 2022 at 10:20 pm
– In reply to: Ms. Fox

I’m happy to help!

Questions or Comments?